Here you can find my HCI, Web technology and Computer Graphics related papers on topics such as novel user interface designs and guidelines, new interaction techniques, user performance, and user studies.

Conference & Journal Articles

Usability of WebGL Applications

WebGL Insights shares experience-backed lessons learned by the WebGL community. It presents proven techniques that will be helpful to both intermediate and advanced WebGL developers.
Chapter "Usability of WebGL Applications" breaks down usability principles for fitting 3D into the traditional web interface of hypertext, covering both prominent and subtle interactions ranging from reading text to navigation, selection, and manipulation of 3D objects. (See full text of the article)

Published in WebGL Insights, CRC Press, 2015

Advances in Interaction with 3D Environments

This paper is an extended version of the State-of-the-Art report(STAR): "A survey of interaction techniques for interactive 3D en-vironments" presented at Eurographics'13. It presents an extended and more comprehensive review of the state of the art of non-immersive interaction techniques for Navigation, Selection & Manipulation, and System Control, including a basic introduction to the topic, the challenges, and an examination of a number of popular approaches. (See full text of the article)

Published at the Computer Graphics Forum, Wiley-Blackwell, 2014

A Study of Street-level Navigation Techniques in 3D Digital Cities on Mobile Touch Devices

To characterize currently most common interaction techniques for street-level navigation in 3D digital cities for mobile touch devices in terms of their efficiency and usability, we conducted a user study, where we compared target selection (Go-To), rate control (Joystick), position control, and stroke-based control navigation metaphors. The results suggest users performed best with the Go-To interaction technique. The subjective comments showed a preference of novices towards Go-To and expert users towards Joystick technique. (See full text of the article)

Published at the 9th International IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces (3DUI'14), Minneapolis, USA, 2014

Declarative Integration of Interactive 3D Graphics into the World-Wide Web:
Principles, Current Approaches, and Research Agenda

In this paper we explore the options for new declarative ways of incorporating 3D graphics directly into HTML to enable its use on any Web page. We present declarative 3D principles that guide the work of the Declarative 3D for the Web Architecture W3C Community Group and describe the current state of the fundamentals to this initiative. Finally, we draw an agenda for the next development stages of Declarative 3D for the Web. (See full text of the article)

Published at the 18th International Conference on 3D Web Technology (Web3D'13), San Sebastian, Spain, 2013

On the Design of a Dual-Mode User Interface for Accessing 3D Content on the World Wide Web

This article is an extended version of a paper: "A Dual-Mode User Interface for Accessing 3D Content on the World Wide Web" presented at WWW'12 (see the paper below). In this paper we present a novel strategy for accessing integrated information spaces, where hypertext and 3D graphics data are simultaneously available and linked. (See full text of the article)

Published at the International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Elsevier, 2013

A Survey of Interaction Techniques for Interactive 3D Environments

Various interaction techniques have been developed for interactive 3D environments. This paper presents an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the state of the art of non-immersive interaction techniques for Navigation, Selection & Manipulation, and System Control, including a basic introduction to the topic, the challenges, and an examination of a number of popular approaches. We hope that this survey can aid both researchers and developers of interactive 3D applications in having a clearer overview of the topic and in particular can be useful for practitioners and researchers that are new to the field of interactive 3D graphics. (See full text of the article)

Published at the 34th Conference of the European Association for Computer Graphics (Eurographics’13), Spain, 2013

A Dual-Mode User Interface for Accessing 3D Content on the World Wide Web

We present a novel strategy for accessing integrated information spaces, where hypertext and 3D graphics data are simultaneously available and linked. We introduce a user interface that has two modes between which a user can switch anytime: the driven by simple hypertext-based interactions "don't-make-me-think" mode, where a 3D scene is embedded in hypertext and the more immersive 3D "take-me-to-the-Wonderland" mode, which immerses the hypertextual annotations into the 3D scene. A user study is presented, which characterizes the user interface in terms of its efficiency and usability. (See full text of the article)

Published at the 21st International World Wide Web Conference (WWW'12), Lyon, France, 2012

A Taskonomy of 3D Web Use

This paper aims to shed some light on the fundamental tasks users engage in while browsing the 3D Web. Firstly, we will provide an overview and discussion of several field studies that provide insights on how the current version of the Web is used focusing on the tasks that users carry out. Then we will present a comprehensive review of mouse-based 3D interaction techniques for Desktop 3D Virtual Environments (DVEs). Finally, we will introduce a simple taxonomy - a "3D Web Taskonomy" that was designed to assists designers and developers of interactive 3D Web applications to better evaluate their options when choosing and implementing an interaction technique. (See full text of the article)

Published at the 16th International Conference on 3D Web Technology (Web3D'11), Paris, France, 2011

Integrating Text with Video and 3D Graphics: The Effects of Text Drawing Styles on Text Readability

There have been many studies of computer based text reading. However, only a few have considered text integrated with video and 3D graphics. This paper presents an investigation into the effects of varying (a) text drawing style, (b) image polarity, and (c) background style on text readability. Results showed that: (a) there was little difference in reading performance for the video and 3D backgrounds; (b) the negative presentation outperformed the positive presentation; (c) the billboard drawing styles supported the best performance; subjective comments showed a preference for the billboard style. (See full text of the article)

Published at the 28th International Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI'10), Atlanta, USA, 2010

2LIP: Filling the Gap between the Current and the Three-Dimensional Web

In this article we present a model for 2-Layer Interface Paradigm (2LIP). 2LIP is an approach for designing simple yet interactive 3D web applications, an attempt to marry advantages of 3D experience with the advantages of the narrative structure of hypertext. The hypertext information, together with graphics, and multimedia, is presented semi-transparently on the foreground layer. It overlays the 3D representation of the information displayed in the background of the interface. We describe implementations of the 2LIP model: 2LIPGarden (HTML context) and Copernicus (wiki context). (See full text of the article)

Published at the 16th International Conference on 3D Web Technology (Web3D'09), Darmstadt, Germany, 2009

2LIPGarden – 3D Hypermedia for Everyone

In this paper, we propose 2LIPGarden, a 3D Hypermedia publishing framework that lets individuals who only know basic HTML – those same enthusiasts who could write pages for the early Web – create simple, easy to use yet interactive 3D web pages. Our framework builds upon 2-Layer Interface Paradigm (2LIP), an attempt to marry advantages of 3D experience with the advantages of narrative structure of hypertext. We introduce c-link to HTML, a new type of hyperlink, which connects text with its 3D visualization. (See full text of the article)

Published at the 20th ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia (HT'09), Torino, Italy, 2009

Accessing Cultural Heritage using the Web of Data

Cultural Heritage (CH) is a vast domain, where sharing information is challenging. As a result, the global CH is distributed and heterogeneous. In this paper, we present the concept of the Web of Data as an approach to integrating CH collections. We introduce the CHoWDer (Cultural Heritage on the Web of Data) model, the simple model designed to illustrate how easily CH institutions can participate in the Linked Data initiative. (See full text of the article)

Published at the 10th International Symposium on Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage (VAST'09), St.Julians, Malta, 2009

IKHarvester – Informal eLearning with SemanticWeb Harvesting

Only recently, researchers and practitioners alike have begun to fully understand the potential of eLearning and have concentrated on new tools and technologies for creating, capturing and distributing knowledge. In order to support and extend those solutions we propose the idea of incorporating the informal knowledge into Learning Management Systems. Contributing to the body of research, problems of existing eLearning technologies are documented highlighting areas of definite improvement. Finally, sematic web harvesting technology as a solution is explored in the form of the knowledge acquisition tool called IKHarvester. (See full text of the article)

Published at the 2nd IEEE International Conference on Semantic Computing (ICSC'08), Santa Clara, CA, USA, 2008

PhD Thesis

Hypertextualized Virtual Environments: Dual-Mode User Interface Design

This thesis develops a novel strategy for accessing Hypertextualized Virtual Environments (HiVEs), integrated information spaces where symbolic (hypertext) and visual (3D graphics) data are simultaneously available and linked (e.g., 3D content on the Web). The work focuses on user interface design. (See full text of the thesis)

The thesis was supervised by Prof. Stefan Decker and examined by Prof. Peter Brusilovsky and Prof. Manfred Hauswirth

Proceedings

Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Declarative 3D for the Web Architecture
(Dec3D2012 at WWW2012)

The aim of the workshop is to encourage researchers from both the Web and 3D graphics communities to meet and talk about an integration of interactive 3D graphics capabilities into the Web technology stack.

Published at the CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Vol-869, 2012

Proceedings of the 6th International Wikimedia Conference (Wikimania 2010)

Wikimania is an annual global event devoted to Wikimedia projects around the globe (including Wikipedia, Wikibooks, Wikinews, Wiktionary, Wikispecies, and Wikimedia Commons). The conference is a community gathering, giving the editors and users of Wikimedia projects an opportunity to meet each other, exchange ideas, report on research and projects, and collaborate on the future of the projects.

Published at the 6th International Wikimedia Conference (Wikimania 2010), Gdansk, Poland, 2010

Tutorials

Interaction Techniques for Interactive 3D Web Environments

This tutorial presents an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the state of the art of non-immersive interaction techniques for Navigation, Selection & Manipulation, and System Control, including a basic introduction to the topic, the challenges, and an examination of a number of popular approaches. We hope that this tutorial can aid both researchers and developers of interactive 3D Web applications in having a clearer overview of the topic and in particular can be useful for practitioners and researchers that are new to the field of interactive 3D graphics.

Presented at the 18th International Conference on 3D Web Technology (Web3D'13), San Sebastian, Spain, 2013

Posters & Workshop Papers

Evaluation of static vs. animated views in 3D web user interfaces

3DWeb user interfaces often employ static viewpoints, in our opinion not the best model for representing points of interest in interactive virtual environments. In this paper we report a study aimed at determining the effects of animated viewpoints on usability and appeal of 3DWeb user interfaces. The results of the experiment show that animated viewpoints can have significant benefits on user interaction satisfaction - all users clearly preferred interacting with animated viewpoints than with static ones. (See full text of the article)

Published at the 17th International Conference on 3D Web Technology (Web3D'12), Los Angeles, USA, 2012

Writing Effective Use Cases for the Declarative 3D for the Web Architecture

In this paper we present a guide for writing use cases for the Declarative 3D for the Web Architecture, use cases where embedding 3D data in HTML using declarative approach provides significant benefit. We list components of a use case which we believe are essential when writing use cases and then we walk through a simple use case example. We believe that thanks to properly described use cases, it will be much easier to deduce different required dimensions for the Dec3D specification. (See full text of the article)

Published at the 1st International Workshop on Declarative 3D for the Web Architecture (Dec3D2012 at WWW2012), Lyon, France, 2012

Creating 3D Museums on the Web

During the mini-workshop, we describe a simple to use authoring application, which may help museums to create virtual exhibitions in a quick and intuitive way. We introduce 3dWiki, a 3D wiki engine. We describe step by step how to create a virtual exhibition using 3dWiki: from creating models representing the artifacts, through authoring the textual content, creating the links, to publishing the result on-line.

Published in the Proceedings of Museums and the Web 2010: The International Conference for Culture and Heritage On-Line (MW'10), Denver, USA, 2010

3DWiki: The 3D Wiki Engine

We demonstrate one of the potential paths of the evolution of wiki engines. We introduce 3D wiki engine, which was built according to 2-Layer Interface Paradigm (2LIP). It was developed for use by Copernicus, our vision of a 3D encyclopedia. In the demonstration: (1) We give an overview of 2-Layer Interface Paradigm, an attempt to marry advantages of 3D experience with the advantages of narrative structure of hypertext. (2) We describe step by step how to create an article for Copernicus: from creating models for the 3D background, through authoring the content, creating the c-links, to publishing the result in our encyclopedia. (3) We show how to use a physics engine in our wiki.

Published at the 5th International Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration (WikiSym'09), Orlando, Florida, 2009

2LIP: The Step Towards The Web3D

Most of the contemporary best practices for designing web interfaces do not take into account the 3D techniques. In this paper we present a novel approach for designing interactive web applications – 2-Layer Interface Paradigm (2LIP). The background layer of the 2LIP-type user interface is a 3D scene, which a user cannot directly interact with. The foreground layer is HTML content. Only taking an action on this content (e.g. pressing a hyperlink, scrolling a page) can affect the 3D scene. We introduce a reference implementation of 2LIP called Copernicus, which shows one of the potential paths of the evolution of Wikipedia. (See full text of the article)

Published at the 17th International World Wide Web Conference (WWW'08), Beijing, China, 2008

Copernicus - 3D Wikipedia

In this paper we present one of the potential paths of the evolution of Wikipedia towards Web 3.0. We introduce Copernicus - The Virtual 3D Encyclopedia, which was built according to 2-Layer Interface Paradigm (2LIP). The background layer of the 2LIP-type user interface is a 3D scene, which a user cannot directly interact with. The foreground layer is HTML content. Only taking an action on this content (e.g. pressing a hyperlink) can affect the 3D scene. (See full text of the article)

Published at the the 35th International Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH'08), Los Angeles, USA, 2008

Didaskon – Semantic eLearning Framework

We present Didaskon, a framework for automated composition of a learning path for a student. The selection and workflow scheduling of learning objects is based mainly on their description and semantically annotated specification of user profile. Didaskon also derives information aggregated by IKHarvester (informal knowledge harvester) from various Social Semantic Information Sources, i.e., wikis, blogs, fora, and other informal source.

Published at the the the Semantic Technology Conference (SemTech'08), San Jose, CA, USA, 2008